"Hoy canta alegre el Llanero
cabalgando sin cesar
a la luz de los luceros
en sueños sin despertar..."

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WHAT IS JOROPO

The word Joropo encompasses a tradition which includes village fiestas, poetry, singing, music and dance in a form of popular expression which is constantly evolving. Improvised creativity flourish on existing structures and defined patterns of style.
Its origins date from ancient Iberian music from the XVII and XVIII Centuries, such as the multiple fandango, the folias, peteneras, jotas and Andalusian malagueñas. These roots have been flavored with the influence of eight centuries of Arabic occupation and then transformed in America by the mixing of African and indigenous elements under the burning sun of the Orinoco Basin and the infinite largeness of its horizons and savannas.
The roots of joropo include music from sailors and troubadors who came in the galleons from Spain, taking root in South American soil and developing into a powerful and vigorous tradition. Over time joropo even became a symbol of national identity in Venezuela where it is considered the national dance, but only attained that status in eastern Colombia.

There are three regional styles of joropo defined by instrumental and stylistic differences: eastern joropo and central joropo in Venezuela and the llanero joropo, from the plains along the Orinoco River, which is the one found in both countries and the very popular, due to its many recordings, extensive radio airplay and an abundance of festivals and competitions.

Joropo music has become a genre for great solo virtuoso performances on the leading melodic instruments: harp or bandola (four-string lute) while the accompaniment is with the cuatro (four-string strummed small guitar) and the maracas. The double or electric bass has been incorporated into this group since the 40's. The llanero musician strums and plucks his instrument in a fierce and percussive manner and prefers lyrics which are strongly rooted in the poetic elements of his province, often in a proud nationalist gesture. The instruments offer a surprising palette of harmonic and percussive textures wrapped around the voices and the harp or bandola.

Couplet singers improvise rhymed verses which refer to historical or daily events and even to people present at the party; the instrumentalists search for new percussive sounds and textures through constant variations, improvisation being at the heart of joropo music. The typical "canto recio” singing has a strong declamatory style and an epic character, featured by a long note called "tañío" at the beginning of most songs.

The main forms are golpes (fast dances,) pasajes and tonadas (slow songs). Its names often refer to birds such as Gabán, Gavilán, Guacharaca, Periquera, Pajarillo, etc.
The musical forms can be vocal or purely instrumental, but the real Joropo classic is the vocal ‘joust’, an improvised rhymed duel between two singers called “contrapunteo”.
Born at full gallop with an incredible speed and powerful rhythmic vitality practically shouted out at the imense savannas,llanero joropo’s brisk and fiery character is therefore called the "untamed" joropo. ***


"Sabana de Sol Quemao...
...me huele a tierra mojada
me huele a llanto en el cielo
me huele a lluvia encantada..."


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EXCERPTS: (mp3)

1- La Revuelta Tuyera: Fulgencio Aquino, Central Harp from Venezuela (0.94 Mb)

2- Zumba que Zumba: Ignacio "Indio" Figueredo (1 Mb)

3- Florentino y el Diablo, Contrapunteo de Chipola y Pajarillo:
José Romero Bello & el Carrao de Palmarito,singers; Joseíto Romero, Harp. (1 Mb)


4- Cheo Hurtado, Cuatro Solo (0.97 Mb)

5- Yesid Benítez, Bandola and accompanying ensemble(1 Mb)

6- Pajarillo: Carlos Orozco, Harp (1.04 Mb)

7- Pajarillo Campesino: Sings Myriam González, la Paraulata Llanera (1.04 Mb)

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